Treatment For Rubeola

Rubeola is viral disease generally seen in winter and spring seasons. The virus which causes Rubeola is called Measles. More than 60 percent suffer from this disease due improper immunity to the person living with them. It is type of communicating and air-borne diseases which can easily attract small children towards it.

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But generally there is no treatment for Rubeola; the patient requires support and care rather than medicines. Vapor’s vaporizer can be used as an effective instrument which is used to take steam by the patient. If the patient takes some clean vapors each day there could be possibly a positive change seen in him. Red rashes and moulds can be stopped to grow if regularly vaporization is performed. Special precautions have to be taken care of that the water taken for vaporization should not be so much hot that it could cause burns or scalds on to the patient body.

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What you need to know before opting for insurance policies

Every one of has heard a lot about the benefits of life insurance and health insurance . But hardly a few people know how to reap maximum benefits from them. Before opting for any kind of insurance, you need to make an assessment that how much you want to avail and how much you are able to pay. In other words, the amount you get if you are insured depends upon how much you earn and how much you can pay back as monthly or yearly premium (instalments). The insurance policies always work on one principle. You need to pay small equivalent amount as monthly or yearly instalments and on the basis of that you can avail a bigger amount. To make the things clearer, if you want to get yourself insured for 10,000 dollars then you need to pay around 800 dollars yearly or any amount depending upon the source from where you insure yourself along with the type of insurance you are opting for. It is always advisable to make yourself prepared for any circumstances where you need money for getting yourself treated as in case of lack of treatment, you put your life on risk. Along with these factors, you need to see if your policy is providing income protection or not which is getting an equivalent amount as compared to your salary when you are not on job due to these reasons.

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Fingernail Problem

Scratch an itch. Strum a guitar. Peel an orange. Your fingernails come in handy all day long, but too much use-or misuse-can cause problems ranging from nasty fungal infections to brittle, broken nails.

Your nails are made of keratin, the same type of protein that goes into your hair. Each nail actually consists of several parts, all of which play an important role in its health and growth:

  • Nail plate: This is what you see as the fingernail.
  • Nail bed: This lies below the nail plate; the two are attached. The capillaries in the nail bed nourish the nail and give it its pinkish color.
  • Nail matrix: You don’t see most of this, yet it may be the most important. It’s below the cuticle at the base of the nail. Cells in the matrix produce the fingernail. If the matrix gets damaged, your nail will be distorted or may even stop growing completely.
  • Lunula: This is the part of the matrix that you can see. It’s the moon-shaped portion at the bottom of your nail.
  • Cuticle: This fold of skin, made of dead cells, keeps foreign substances, like infection-causing bacteria, out.
  • Nail fold: The nail fold is the ridge of skin around the nail.

Although plenty can go wrong with the nails, one of the most common complaints dermatolo­gists hear is that fingernails are brittle-”whether they’re soft and brittle or hard and brittle,” says Lawrence A. Norton, M.D., clinical professor of dermatology at Boston University School of Medicine.

“Brittle nails can be compared to dry skin of the nails,” explains Richard K. Scher, M.D., professor of clinical dermatology and nail specialist at Columbia University School of Medicine in New York. “You treat them like dry skin-use moisturizers and avoid harsh chemicals and detergents that are drying.”

“Such nails are often shingling-they split like roof shingles at the end of the nail,” says Norton. He blames the condition on nails dried out from indoor heat, exposure to detergents, and too frequent use of nail polish removers.

Nails that are soft and brittle, on the other hand, need to be kept dry. “You’ve used too much lotion or kept your hands in water too long,” says C. Ralph Daniel III, M.D., clinical professor of medicine (dermatology) at the University of Mississippi Medical Center in Jackson.

Trauma, the doctors’ term for injury, is another major problem for fingernails. “You hit your fingernail with the hammer,” says Daniel. If a bruise forms beneath the nail, a doctor may have to relieve the pressure that builds up.

Injuries also open the door to infections, especially fungal infections. Although these generally plague toenails more often than fingernails (because of athlete’s foot), fungal infections can strike the nails on the hands, with some unpleasant consequences.

And finally, certain skin diseases, such as psoriasis, can show up in your nails.

What you don’t want to occur. Separation of the nail plate from the nail bed, a condition called onycholysis. It can occur after an injury, infections, allergies to nail cosmetics, exposure to chemicals, or diseases like psoriasis. If the nail appears white, it may have separated. You’ll need to see your doctor and you’ll want to be careful not to aggravate the problem further. Unfortunately, once the nail separates, it won’t reattach until a new nail has grown out.

You also want to take good care of the nail matrix. If this is damaged, it will start producing a deformed nail or, even worse, no nail at all.

Here’s what the experts recommend you do to keep your nails as healthy and attractive as possible:

Avoid the culprits. The housewife or househusband is exposed to detergents and cleansers, the janitor to strong cleaning fluids, the bartender to citrus fruits, and so on, says Daniel. If you can’t stay away from these substances, wear gloves whenever possible. Otherwise, you risk brittle nails and even nail separation, or infection, which could lead to a deformed nail or even the loss of it.

Wear vinyl gloves for wet work. That’s vinyl, not latex or rubber, stresses Daniel, which will make hands sweat. In fact, Scher recommends wearing cotton gloves under the vinyl gloves.

Wear cotton gloves for dry work. You’ll help protect nails from damage or possible injury.

Keep your nails short. Try giving that advice to actress/singer Barbra Streisand or Olympic star Florence Griffith Joyner. But face it, the shorter your nails, the less the risk of damaging them.

Be careful of nail bangers. Don’t use your nail in place of a screwdriver, says Daniel. Try not to hit it with a hammer. You get the idea: Such actions can injure your nails, opening the door to infections, stopping nail growth, or causing bruises. “If your nail turns black and blue, go to your doctor or the emergency room,” says Daniel. The pressure should be relieved on the blood vessel that’s been injured underneath the nail.

Moisturize your nails. “Soak them in tepid water,” says Norton. “Then massage in a moisturizer to hold the water. There’s no fat in your nails to hold the moisture in.” He suggests trying any product with phospholipids, urea, or lactic acid-all are “humectants,” which will hold water; two he recommends are Complex 15 or Aquaderm. Daniel suggests white petrolatum or Moisturil.

Avoid moisture. Sounds like a contradiction, right? If your nail becomes infected, particularly with a yeast organism, it’s important to keep it as dryas possible. The nail plate may look chalky white, yellowish, brownish, or even green when an infection has set in. The nail may separate from the bed, or the nail fold may be red and irritated looking. See your doctor if you’re not sure what’s happening.

Care for your cuticles. But not the way you may think. “Don’t use mechanical instruments and cut them,” warns Scher. Soak them first, then push them back with a moist towel. He warns against orange sticks and cuticle scissors. “When you clip cuticles, you’re breaking down the normal barrier to bacteria and moisture,” says Norton, “and that can lead to an infection.”

Don’t pick or tear at hangnails. Otherwise, you’re opening the door to infection by making a break in the skin where bacteria can enter. Daniel suggests clipping the dry part of the hangnail with fine scissors and applying an over-the-counter antibiotic ointment. Keeping your hands, nails, and cuticles moisturized will help prevent future hangnails.

Realize the risk with nail cosmetics. Sculptured nails can hold in too much moisture, says Norton. The glues used in nail wraps can cause reactions resulting in permanent damage to the nail bed and root, says Daniel. The most common problem is separation of the nail from the bed. But if you notice any pain or tenderness, you’re probably reacting to the glue, and you need medical attention, stresses Daniel.

Forget formaldehyde. Although most fingernail polishes and nail hardeners are not supposed to contain formaldehyde, some still do. And if they cause an allergy or irritation, you can end up with nail separation.

Cut down on polish remover. “Apply and remove polish no more often than once a week,” advises Daniel. “The acetone in polish remover dehydrates the nails.”

Don’t eat gelatin hoping to build strong nails. It just doesn’t work.

Ditto for calcium. “Calcium has very little, if anything, to do with how hard your nails are,” Daniel says. Unless you are crash dieting or suffering from a malabsorption problem, your nails are not influenced that much by what you eat, says Scher.

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When you brought your new baby home from the hospital, he seemed so quiet, so sweet, so well behaved. Suddenly, about two weeks after your child’s arrival, Mommy’s angel turned into a crying, squalling, red-faced little devil. At time the child may have appeared to be in pain. He drew his legs up to his belly and appeared to pass gas more frequently. Perhaps you took your child to the pediatrician for a diagnosis, or maybe you were able to recognize the symptoms yourself-the demon of colic had invaded your once-peaceful home. By now, you’ve probably reached the end of. your rope. You feel frustrated and tired. You may have started to doubt your ability to parent your child properly. You may have even considered packing up your bags and leaving home.

The first step to take is to relax in the knowledge that your feelings are perfectly normal. Parents are often conditioned to believe that if their child is crying, something is wrong-something that they should be able to fix. Fortunately, you can take solace in the fact that your child is probably otherwise healthy. Colic does not indicate the presence of a serious medical problem. And a certain amount of crying is normal and healthy, says William B. Carey, M.D., a clinical professor 0 pediatrics at the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine and director of Behavioral Pediatrics in the Division of General Pediatrics at Children’s Hospital, both in Philadelphia. Still, to set your mind at ease, it may be helpful to take your child to the pediatrician to ensure that his or her crying is not a sign of a medical problem, says Carey. It can also be reassuring to keep in mind that most cases of colic go away by the time the child has reached three months of age.

The bad news is that doctors still don’t know what causes colic, what the disorder really is, or how to cure it. They don’t even know if colicky babies really are in pain. However, there are some tried-and-true ways of helping to soothe your baby, even if you can’t curb his or her crying completely. These are included in the tips that follow. Another important component to the well­ being of your colicky baby and to you is your sanity. So some of the tips below are designed to help you cope.

Set the baby in motion. As most parents can attest, mild repetitious motion, such as that of a moving car or a rocking chair, can calm a cranky baby. With a colicky child, that knowledge is doubly important, according to Cheston M.Berlin, Jr., M.D., a professor of pediatrics and of pharmacology at Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine’s Milton S.Hershey Medical Center in Hershey. “Motion is the best thing for children who are having so much trouble,” he says. If taking the child out in the car is too inconvenient, he recommends putting the child in a safety seat and placing it atop a running dryer (don’t leave the baby unattended).

There are also devices on the market that will rock or vibrate the baby’s crib, Berlin says. Some of these devices even have sound sensors that will start the motion only when the baby starts crying and will stop after it senses that the baby has calmed down or gone to sleep. One device even simulates the motion of a car moving at 55 miles per hour. Some physicians find it effective, while others feel that it makes little difference.

Let the baby sleep. Many parenting books and pediatricians would have you believe that you should pick the baby up every time he or she cries, says Carey. However, babies often cry because they are tired. If this is the case, picking up the child only stimulates him or her further. “I think some of the time you should be leaving the baby alone,” Carey says. “If you pick up a tired baby, he’ll cry more. ”

To assess whether your child is crying because of fatigue, try everything else first: feeding, burping, changing, cuddling. Then, if the baby is still crying, put him or her down to sleep, and walk away. Often, the child will settle down within five minutes, Carey says.

Stay calm. “It is important to emphasize that colic is a benign disorder,” Berlin says. “It has never been known to cause or represent any serious medical problem.” With that knowledge in mind, understand that this is just a stage in your child’s development-an unpleasant stage that will soon pass.

Take your baby off cow’s milk. Some studies have shown an improvement in colic after dairy products have been removed from babies’ diets, according to Ronald G. Barr, M.D.C.M., an associate professor of pediatrics and psychiatry at McGill University and director of the Child Development Program at Montreal Children’s Hospital, both in Montreal. The culprit seems to be a protein in cow’s milk, which is present in many infant formulas and is also found in the milk of breast-feeding mothers who eat dairy products, Barr says. The protein may be responsible for colic in about five to ten percent of babies who suffer from the condition. Changing the baby’s formula (there are many soy-based formulas available) or staying off dairy products yourself if you are breast-feeding, is worth a try. If your baby’s crying does not seem to improve after two weeks, you can assume that the milk was not the problem.

Try peppermint water. Although it has never been definitively proven to be effective, peppermint­ flavored water is a century-old remedy for colic, according to Berlin. “It was very recently discovered that the active ingredient in peppermint oil is a calcium-channel blocker, a substance that may relax the gut,” he says. He recommends soaking a piece of a peppermint stick in water, then feeding a bottleful of the flavored water to the baby. Do not use straight peppermint oil, he says, as this may be too strong for the baby.

Add fiber to your baby’s formula. Some studies have shown that colic seemed to improve in certain infants when fiber was added to their formula, according to William R. Treem, M.D., a pediatric gastroenterologist in the Division of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition at Hartford Hospital in Connecticut and associate professor of pediatrics at the University of Connecticut School of Medicine. “Some babies seemed to be dramatically better when we added fiber to their! formula,” he said. “We used Citrucel, a bulking I agent that draws water into the stool. We have added anywhere from one-half teaspoon three I times a day to one-half teaspoon six times a day, think it’s best to start small and build up to the higher doses.” Although not the answer for every baby, adding fiber is certainly safe and is definitely worth a try, Treem says.

Take a shower. If your baby’s crying has driven you to the point of near madness, it’s time to stop and take a break, Berlin says, since an overly frustrated parent can be of no help to anyone. “I recommend 20 to 30 minutes in a warm shower,” he says, adding that the sound of the water can successful mask the baby’s crying. (Be sure the baby is in a safe place, such as a crib).

Keep a calendar. A record of your baby’s weight ,and the frequency and length of crying bouts may be of help in tracking his or her progress, Barr j says. It can also be a handy record to take to the pediatrician’s office, he says. A useful bonus of the charting is that it reminds you that your baby doll cry a lot, but that there are breaks in between, “Parents tend to feel like the baby just cries all the time,” Barr says.

Be realistic. “The babies that you see in magazine~! and books-the babies who are neat, clean, and happy-well, you can expect your baby to be like that for about 30 minutes out of every 24 hours,” says Edward R. Christophersen, Ph.D., professor of pediatrics at the University of Missouri at Kansas City School of Medicine and chief of the Behavioral Pediatrics Section at Children’s Mercy Hospital, Kansas City, Missouri. “Keep in mind that the only exercise babies get is crying and nursing.” In other words, don’t be discouraged. Your baby is not abnormal just because he or she cries a lot.

Soothe, don’t stimulate. Since crying, colicky babies are already overly stimulated, try soothing the baby instead of bouncing or rocking him or her, says Carey. Some time-honored tools: a hot-water bottle, filled with warm-not hot-water and placed on a towel on the child’s back or stomach, a pacifier, or the use of repetitious sounds, such as the noise of a fan or humidifier.

Maintain as much direct contact as possible. Pediatricians often recommend carrying and cuddling a colicky baby as much as possible. However, studies have failed to show that carrying actually causes a reduction in crying. On the other hand, carrying the baby more frequently before colic ever sets in may prevent the condition from developing in the first place, says Barr. He mentions a study where the caretakers of 99 normal infants increased their carrying of the infants by the age of three weeks. The result? The babies cried 43 percent less than other babies of the same age. “The carrying prevented the crying peak from ever occurring in those infants,” Barr says. He also describes studies of a tribe of Botswanian hunter-gatherers, the Kung San, whose infants cry as often as North American babies, but only for about half as long. Mothers in the tribe spend significantly more time with their babies held close to their bodies than North Americans do, he says.

Feed more often. One reason that the Kung San spend so much time holding their babies is that they feed them almost continuously, Barr says. “They feed very frequently-approximately four times per hour, four minutes per feed,” he says. This type of feeding schedule may be partly responsible for the reduced crying of the Kung San infants, according to Barr. “Parents do have the option to feed more frequently,” he says. “I think there is lots of room for changing the frequency of feeding that is within the range of what is normal.” Even if continuous feeding does not fit into your schedule, adding a few extra feedings still may help, Barr says.

Put your baby on a schedule. Some children cry excessively because they simply don’t know how to calm themselves down enough to go to sleep, says Christophersen. Since babies under the age of 12 weeks often fall asleep while being fed, it is sometimes difficult for them to fall asleep without feeding, he says. He suggests starting your baby on a regular schedule of sleeping and waking and trying to get him or her to fall asleep without your assistance. “Kiss them, hug them, sing them songs, then let them fall asleep on their own,” he says. “This way, they learn to make their own transition from the alert, crying state to the sleeping state.”

Touch base with your pediatrician. Your pedia­trician can be an invaluable source of ideas, experience, and reassurance, says Christophersen. “Parents can get very discouraged with a colicky child,” he says. He recommends taking advantage of all support systems that are available to you.

Wait it out. If all else fails, take solace in the fact that colic generally stops by three months of age, Berlin says. The longest you’ll have to wait is until the baby reaches six months, although colic this long-lasting is rare. Unfortunately, “there’s no dramatic cure,” he says.

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Carpal tunnel Syndrome

If, for you, working nine to five means tapping a computer keyboard, punching cash-register keys, working a jackhammer, or doing any other repetitive motion with your hands, you may be at risk for a painful condition called carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). CTS is a collection of symptoms that can include tingling, numbness, burning, and pain from the wrist to the fingers. By far the most common cause of CTS is repetitive motion with the hands. For this reason, CTS is considered a “cumulative trauma disorder.” However, medical conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis, hypothyroidism (low levels of thyroid hormone), pregnancy, and overweight can also cause symptoms of CTS.If you suffer from CTS, you’re not alone. According to the United States Bureau of Labor Statistics, cumulative trauma disorders, including CTS, currently account for more than half of all occupational illnesses reported in the United States today. To understand why CTS occurs, it helps to take a look inside the wrist. The carpal tunnel is a narrow passageway that runs through the wrist. It is only about the size of a postage stamp, but it is crowded with nerves, blood vessels, and nine different tendons, packed in like strands of spaghetti, that control finger movement. Repetitive motions or medical conditions can cause the tendons to swell, decreasing blood flow and compressing the median nerve, which supplies the thumb, index finger, and middle finger. This compression can cause the numbness, pain, tingling, and burning we call carpal tunnel syndrome. If left unchecked, muscle wasting and permanent damage to nerves can result.

For most people, the key to beating this syndrome is prevention-making changes before CTS becomes a problem. If you’re already experiencing the tingling, numbness, and pain associated with CTS, you may be able to prevent further damage and promote healing by making a few simple changes in your lifestyle. The tips that follow can help you keep your hands and wrists healthy and help reduce symptoms of CTS. If your symptoms are severe or if they don’t resolve after two weeks of self-care, however, see your doctor.

Stay in shape. You’ll be less likely to suffer injury your body’s circulation and repair systems work well, says Mark Tager, M.D., president of Great Performance, Inc., a company in Beaverton, Oregon, specializing in occupational health. He suggests practicing good nutrition, getting adequate sleep, taking frequent exercise breaks, and avoiding smoking (cigarette smoking cuts down circulation to all areas of the body).

Take mini breaks. Fatigue in the joints or muscles is a warning sign to change your pattern of working, says Michael Martindale, L.P.T., a physical therapist at the Sports Medicine Center at Portland Adventist Medical Center in Oregon. “The body is trying to tell you something,” he say & “It’s up to you to listen and take a break.”

“Get up and change your activity,” advises David Rempel, M.D., assistant professor of medicine and director of the Ergonomics Laboratory at the University of California at San Francisco. “A 1-to 2-minute break every 20 or 30 minutes is a good idea. Then take a longer break every hour.”

Don’t snooze and lose. Some people are bothered more by CTS symptoms at night. Many doctors believe this is because the fluid in the body is redistributed when you lie down, so more of it accumulates in the wrist. In addition, many people unwittingly cause wrist-nerve compression by sleeping with one hand tucked under their head, Tager. He suggests altering your sleep position keep your wrist from being bent or compressed.

Take some weight off. Excess weight can compress the nerves in the wrist, says Tager. He advises keeping your weight within five to ten pounds of your ideal weight by eating a low-fat diet and, getting plenty of exercise.

Rotate jobs. Experts at the National Safety Council suggest that you rotate between jobs that use different muscles and avoid doing the same task for more than a few hours at a time.

Rempel offers the following example: “If your job is to tie a knot in a rope, and the guy down the line cuts the rope, see if you can modify your job so that either you switch tasks frequently Of you combine tasks so you’re not just doing the same thing over and over.”

If your job doesn’t allow rotation, talk with your supervisor or union about a change. Rotation reduces job stresses and minimizes production lossesKeep it in “neutral.” “Work with your body and your wrists in a comfortable, neutral position,” advises Rempel. For wrists, a “neutral” position is straight, not cocked. Check the height of your computer screen (it should be at eye level). Rearrange the level of your key­board or workstation so that you don’t have to strain, reach, or bend your wrists. Your wrists should always be in a straight line with your forearms. And be sure your work is within your “comfort zone” (not too close or too far away).

Get the right grip on it. Most of us have a tendency to grip with only the thumb, index, and middle fingers, which can increase pressure on the wrist. If you have to grip or twist something, such as the lid of a jar, Tager suggests you use your whole hand.

Alternate hands. Whenever possible, Martindale suggests, give your dominant hand a break.

Watch those pressure points. Too often, typists rest their wrists on the sharp edge of a desk or tabie as they work, which can cause excess pressure on the wrists, says Rempel. Adjust your workstation, if necessary, to keep your wrists off the edge.

Soften up and slow down. It’s often powerful movements done at high speed that cause carpal tunnel problems. Martindale suggests slowing down and applying only the force needed.

Decrease bad vibes. People who use vibrating tools, such as sanders and jackhammers, for extended periods are at risk for wrist problems. If you are one of these folks, take frequent breaks and, when possible, operate the tool at the speed that causes the least vibration.

Go “ergo.” Often, CTS can be prevented or treated by adopting tools and workstations that have been “ergonomically” redesigned to cause less stress on the body. Some tools have been designed to work with less force, while others now feature better grips and handles. Some knife manufacturers, for example, have redesigned knives for meat packers that require less wrist bending. Other companies have created aids such as wrist rests for computer users that can prevent or reduce CTS problems.

Look for items that can ease the strain on your wrists and hands, but be wary of miracle machines and gadgets. “Some of the ergonomic aids can be really helpful,” says Rempel. “But I tell people to be careful about devices that make medical claims that say they’ll cure CTS.”

Watch for symptoms, and take action. Pay attentior to early warning signs of CTS, such as morning stiffness in the hands or arms, clumsiness, inability to make a fist, or thumb weakness, and take preventive and self-care action immediately, says Tager.

Ice it. If you’re having CTS symptoms, use ice to reduce swelling and inflammation. Place an ice pack on the wrist and forearm for 5 to 15 minutes two or three times a day, advises Rempel. At the same time, however, be sure to take steps to eliminate the cause of the trauma to your wrist.

Take the heat off. Heat can worsen CIS. “Heat may be good for loosening sore muscles, but you should never use heat with a nerve problem,” says Rempel. “Heat causes the tissue to swell, which can make the problem worse.”

Nix flimsy splints. Wrist splints prescribed by physicians can help CTS; too often, however, people who develop CTS symptoms rush to the pharmacy for a wrist splint as a home remedy. Rempel says these splints can do more harm than good. “The wrist splints you buy at the pharmacil are pretty flimsy,” he says. “They often allow the wrist to move. If people put them on and don’t take them off for long periods of time, they can cause muscle shrinking (atrophy).”

Reach for over-the-counter relief. For minor pain and swelling, take aspirin or ibuprofen.

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When something goes bump in the night, and it’s you, you may end up with the most common type of injury known to man. Bruises, purplish blue testimonies to our physical uses, occur when blood seeps from damaged blood vessels into the surrounding tissue. Known medically as contusions, bruises are usually caused what doctors call direct trauma. Whether from hitting a corner of the coffee table or being kicked in the shin, the result is a painful reminder of our of our not-so-best moments.

Thankfully, bruises generally heal in about 10 to days. Along the way, their coloring changes and 6 from a dark purple to a yellowish blue. The changing colors indicate that scavenger white blood cells have moved into the area to break down ruptured red blood cells (called corpuscles) into iron by products. These by-products can then the whisked away by the blood. When a greenish maroon color appears, healing is almost complete.

While your body is taking care of healing the injury, there are some things you can do to minimize discoloration, maximize pain relief, and prevent bruises from “hitting” you in the future.

Cool it down. To stop the bleeding from the damaged blood vessels, use a cold compress. “The sooner you apply ice, the better,” says Wilma Bergfeld, M.D., head of clinical research in the department of Dermatology at the Cleveland Clinic Foundation in Ohio. The cold also helps mt swelling. Wrap the ice in a damp cloth and apply it for about 10 to 15 minutes. If your fingers toes are bruised, plunge them into ice-cold water for quick results. Never place ice directly on the skin, however, or keep a compress on for prolonged periods of time, because an ice burn can result.

Take a load off. No matter where the injury occurred, it’s important to rest the affected area.

Give it a lift.Elevation is helpful for bruises to the arms or legs,because less blood is pumped into the injured site when gravity lends a hand. Try supporting your arm on the back of a chair or propping your leg up on a few pillows for 30 minutes each hour for the first few hours after injury.

Switch to heat. About 24 hours after the injury, once the bleeding has stopped and the healing process has begun, use heat to help reduce the muscle spasms that can accompany bruising. “The muscles contract to ’splint’ an injury, especially near a joint,” explains Nelson Lee Novick, M,D., associate clinical professor of dermatology at Mount Sinai School of Medicine in New York. Apply lukewarm compresses for about half an hour to an hour, three to four times a day, to relax the muscles surrounding the bruise.

While either moist or dry heat can be used ­whichever is most comfortable for you-many physicians say that for reasons unknown, moist heat seems to be more effective in treating bruises. “But no matter which heating method you use, the heat should never be too high,” warns Bergfeld. If you use a heating pad, for example, it should be set on the lowest temperature.

Keep your aspirin in the cabinet. You may be tempted to reach for aspirin to dull the pain of the injury, but don’t do it. “Both aspirin and acetaminophen contain anticoagulants, commonly known as ‘blood thinning’ agents, which can aggravate the bruise,” says Jerome Z. Litt, M.D., an assistant clinical professor of dermatology at Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine in Cleveland. Instead, reach for ibuprofen, the other major nonprescription painkiller, which does riot contain anticoagulant factors.

Put your moisturizer in the fridge. If you decide to treat the bruise with dry heat and the area becomes dry, use an emollient, preferably a hypoallergenic one, to help smooth and soothe the affected area. Gently pat-do not rub-it on, a few times a day. “By keeping the lotion in the refrigerator, it will feel pleasantly cool on your hot, tender skin when you use it,” says Bergfeld.

Be a teetotaler. Alcoholic beverages, whether wine coolers, beer, or hard liquor, can dilate (open up) blood vessels, which in turn can aggravate the bruising, warns Novick. Alcohol consumption is also a major contributor to accidents in the home.

Wear loose clothing. Tight, restrictive clothes will only increase the bruise’s tenderness. For bruises on the legs, for example, try going without panty hose or socks for a day if you can.

Watch the way you decorate. Furniture that is more rounded or that has softer edges such as Queen Anne-style coffee tables-may be less hazardous to your legs and hips than squared-off styles, especially in small rooms where space is tight.

Consider putting down carpeting. You might be less likely to slip on carpeting than you would on linoleum or tile, and if you do happen to fall, the carpet may help to prevent more serious injury by acting as a cushion.

Tack down area rugs. Those small throw rugs, found in entry halls, bathrooms, and kitchens, frequently slide around or bunch up, living you open to an unexpected trip and a potentially bruising fall. To remedy the problem, adhesive tape or specially made tacking to adhere them to the floor.

Light the way to safety. Night lights or lights set on timers are a relatively low-cost way to illuminate “path for late-night trips to the kitchen or room. You might also try keeping a small flashlight on your night stand so you can take it along when navigating dark hallways or stairways. Motion sensor fixtures, which turn on when movement is detected nearby, are great for outdoor use because they will instantly light up your driveway or sidewalk as you approach.

Improve your footing in the tub. Put a rubber mat in your bathtub or shower stall to help prevent slipping. You might even consider installing a handrail to decrease your risk of slipping while getting in or out of the tub.

Put everything in its place. Clutter can be hazardous to your health. Just think about the times you found a missing item by literally tripping over it.

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Bladder Infection

You have to go, and you have to go now. Come to think of it, it seems like you’ve had to go every 15 minutes since you woke up this morning. And each time, it’s been the same story. Not much comes out, but it burns like crazy. What in the world is going on?

If you have pain or burning on urination, the frequent urge to urinate, and/or blood in your urine, chances are you have a bladder infection (also called cystitis, urinary tract infection, or UTI). These symptoms may also be accompanied by lower abdominal pain, fever and chills, and an all-over ill feeling.

Bladder infections are caused by a bacterial invasion of the bladder and urinary tract. “The urine in the bladder is normally sterile,” explains Amanda Clark, M.D., assistant professor of obstetrics and gynecology at Oregon Health Sciences University in Portland. “However, if it becomes contaminated with bacteria, a bladder infection can develop.”

If you’re a woman who suffers from bladder infections, you’re not alone. “Women tend to suffer more bladder infections than men because the female urethra, the tube leading from the bladder to the outside of the body, is only about one-and-­a-half inches long-a short distance for bacteria to travel,” says Sadja Greenwood, M.D., a women’s health specialist and assistant clinical professor in the Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Sciences at the University of California at San Francisco. (A man’s urethra is about eight inches long.) Frequently, the urinary tract becomes contaminated with Escherichia coli, bacteria that are normally present in the bowel and anal area. In 10 to 15 percent of cases, bladder infections are caused by another organism, such as Chlamydia trachomatis.

Women also suffer more bladder infections because sexual intercourse can irritate the urethra and contribute to the transport of bacteria from the anal area and vagina into the bladder. “We don’t really know exactly why intercourse increases the risk of bladder infections,” says Clark. “We think it might make the bladder tissues a little more receptive to having an infection or it may cause more bacteria to move up the urethra.”
Women who use the diaphragm for birth control have a greater risk of bladder infections, too, says Clark. The diaphragm presses against the neck of the bladder, which inhibits normal urination, she says. As urine flow decreases, pressure within the bladder increases, and the bladder is unable to completely empty itself. The pooled urine then acts as a growth medium for bacteria.

Pregnant women are also more likely to suffer from bladder infections. The changing hormones of pregnancy and the pressure exerted by the enlarged uterus on the bladder and ureters (the two tubes that carry urine from the kidneys to the bladder) put pregnant women at greater risk.

Men can also suffer from this malady. In men, bladder infections are almost always secondary to an infection of the prostate gland (prostatitis), according to Theodore Lehman, M.D., a urologist in private practice and director of The Oregon. Impotence Center in Portland. “Primary infection, of the bladder in men just doesn’t happen, because the bladder is well protected,” explains Lehman.
“But the prostate sits right in front of the bladder, and bacteria can get into it-through sexual intercourse, trauma like bouncing on a bicycle seat, or some kind of blockage-and it stirs up an infection in the prostate. Then the prostate infection can ‘move upstream,’ if you will, and infect the bladder.”

In men, prostate infection usually feels like “you’re sitting on a brick,” says Lehman. When the infection extends to the bladder, the symptoms of irritation, urinary frequency, and pain and burning on urination join the achy-bottom feeling.

Bladder infections can often be treated at home with the self-care tips that follow. However, if your symptoms persist for more than 24 hours, if they don’t respond to home remedies, or if you suspect that your symptoms may be due to a sexually transmitted disease or other infection, see your physician.

Load up on fluids. At the first sign of bladder infection, start drinking water and don’t stop. During the first 24 hours, Greenwood recommends drinking at least one eight-ounce glass of water every hour. People who suffer from recurrent bladder infections usually don’t drink enough liquids. So even when you don’t have an active infection, you should make a habit of drinking eight tall glasses of water every day.

According to Lehman, drinking lots of fluid not only dilutes the urine, giving bacteria less to feed on, it also has a “washout” effect on bacteria.
“The more bacteria you can wash out,” says Lehman, “the less there will be to reproduce.”

Clark warns, however, that people who suffer from urinary leakage (incontinence) probably shouldn’t increase their fluids. She says it can make the bladder infection and the incontinence worse.

Have a cranberry cocktail. If you’ve never developed a taste for the sweet tanginess of cranberry juice, now’s the time. Cranberry juice (without I added sugar) may make urine more I acidic and less hospitable for bacterial growth, says clark. Drinking cranberry juice is also a way to increase your fluid intake.

Go, go, go. Lehman advises both men and women to avoid what he calls “L.A.-freeway-driver bladder.” “Many people don’t urinate when they fIrst get the urge because it’s inconvenient or there isn’t the time or place,” he says. “Take a guy who gets off work, has a couple of cups of coffee or a couple of beers, and gets on the freeway in rush­hour traffic. He feels the urge to urinate, but he can’t get of the freeway. When he finally gets home and urinates, it’s difficult and it bums. By the next day, he’s calling his doctor with a prostate infection. ”

Holding urine allows it to concentrate in the bladder, creating a perfect medium for bacterial growth. In older men, holding urine can cause congestion, inflammation, and obstruction of the prostate and can eventually lead to a prostate infection or sometimes a bladder infection.

Not urinating at the first urge also causes the bladder to distend and stretch. “Essentially, the bladder is a hollow muscle,” says Lehman. “If you repeatedly stretch it, then it won’t void completely and creates a place for bacteria to grow.”

Heat it up. For lower abdominal pain, use a heating pad or hot-water bottle or take a hot bath, advises Greenwood. Lehman says that heat not only relieves the symptoms, it also brings more blood with white blood cells and other infection ­fighting blood products to the affected area. (Pregnant women, however, should not sit in a hot bath or hot tub for too long, since raising the body temperature above 100 degrees Fahrenheit for long periods may cause birth defects or miscarriage.)
Take a bath. If you have a lot of burning, a warm “sitz” bath (sitting in three to four inches of water) can ease the pain.

Take a break. Rest in bed, especially if you have a fever. You’ll conserve energy and speed healing.

Wear cotton underwear. Cotton underwear, cotton­lined panty hose, and loose clothing will allow the genital area to breathe and stay dry. For men, boxer-type shorts rather than jockey-style shorts are better if prostate and bladder infections are a problem.

Avoid alcohol. Alcohol is a urinary tract irritant for both men and women and should be avoided during a bladder infection.

What about spicy foods, tea, and coffee? Clark says, “They really shouldn’t hurt a bladder infection.” However, the caffeine in coffee, tea, and colas does stimulate the kidneys to produce more urine and makes the bladder fill up faster during a time when urination is painful. If caffeine seems to make your symptoms worse, avoid it until the infection goes away.

Take a pain reliever. Bladder infections can be painful. Acetaminophen, ibuprofen, or aspirin, especially if taken at bedtime, can ease the pain.
Wash up, lovers. Both partners should wash up before intercourse.

Urinate after lovemaking. If you suffer from recurrent bladder infections, urinate immediately before and after intercourse, advises Clark. This can help flush out bacteria that may have entered the urinary tract.

Switch birth-control methods. Women who use a diaphragm and suffer from recurrent infections should try switching to condoms or a cervical cap. “If you have recurrent bladder infections, see your doctor to have your diaphragm’s fit rechecked,” says Clark. “You may do better with a smaller diaphragm or a cervical cap.”

Keep a bladder-infection diary. If you suffer from recurrent bladder infections, keep a diary to discover what patterns precede an attack. Some people find that their infections are related to stress, menstruation, lovemaking, or other factors. Once you discover what precipitates your infections, you can make changes to alter those patterns.

Wipe from front to back. Most women wipe from back to front, which moves bacteria from the rectum dangerously close to the urethra.

Use condoms. Prostate infection, which can lead to bladder infection, is more common among men with multiple sex partners. Practice safe sex, and always use condoms with partners.

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Heartburn. The word evokes a frightening picture. Your heart on fire, sizzling and smoking, without a fire fighter in sight. Fortunately, the word is a misnomer. It’s not your heart that’s on fire, it’s your esophagus. But heartburn is easier to say than “esophagus burn. ”

The “burn” part, however, they got right. Your esophagus, the food tube that carries what you swallow down to your stomach, can literally be burned by the acids released by your stomach. Those acids are industrial-strength stuff and are meant to stay where the tough stomach lining can handle them.

Unfortunately, we can experience something called reflux. That’s when some of the stomach contents, including the acid, slip back up through the esophageal sphincter, the valve that’s supposed to prevent the stomach’s contents from reversing course.

David M. Taylor, M.D., a gastroenterologist and assistant professor of medicine at Emory University in Atlanta and at the Medical College of Georgia in Augusta, puts it plainly. “If it goes south, that’s good, if it goes north, you’re in trouble. ”

Reflux causes an uncomfortable burning sensation between the stomach and the neck. Most people feel the discomfort right below the breastbone.

The easy way to avoid a simple case of heartburn? Moderation. Heartburn is generally the result of eating too much too fast. But if it’s too late for moderation, here are some ways to put out that fire and keep it from flaring up again.

Take an antacid. Over-the-counter antacids in tablet or liquid form can help cool the burn. Take a dose about every six hours as needed, says Nalin M. Patel, M.D., a gastroenterologist in private practice and clinical instructor at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Don’t overdo it, though, because too much antacid can cause constipation or diarrhea.

Don’t forget your bedtime dose. Even if you forget to take an antacid during the day, try to remember to take one at bed­time to protect yourself from the pooling of stomach acids. “Nighttime damage is probably the worst that will occur, because you’re bathing your esophagus in acid, and you’re much more prone to bum it,” says Douglas C. Walta, M.D., a gastroenterologist in private practice in Portland, Oregon. Try keeping a bottle of antacid on your nightstand so that you remember to take your nightly dose.

Keep your head up. Another way to protect your esophagus while you sleep is to elevate the head of your bed. That way, you’ll be sleeping on a slope, gravity will work for you in keeping your stomach contents where they belong. Put wooden blocks or bricks under the legs at the head of your in order to bring it up about six inches, advises patel.

Have a glass of milk. Milk can sometimes cut the acid and decrease heartburn, says Taylor.

Get rid of your waterbed. “People with waterbeds who have reflux have to get rid of their waterbeds,” say Walta. “They don’t like to hear that.” The problem with a waterbed is that your body basically lies flat on the water-filled mattress. You can’t effectively elevate your chest and so can’t keep your stomach contents from heading north.

Say no to the couch. Tempting as it may look, the cough is not your friend after eating a meal. People who lie down with a full stomach are asking for trouble. “Stay upright for one hour after meals,” say Patel.

Don’t eat before bed. Heading from the dinner table to bed is a no-no for heartburn sufferers. In fact, doctors recommend warding off sleepy time for two to three hours after a meal. And by that, they mean staying upright for that amount of time. “You should stay upright until the gastric contents are emptied,” says Walta.

Pass on seconds. “If you overeat, it’s kind of like a balloon,” says Walta. “If you blow it up real tense, it’s more likely to empty quickly if you release the valve.” A stomach, ballooned by too much food and drink, may partly empty in the wrong direction.

Loosen your belt. “Avoid tight clothing around the waist,” says Patel. “This tends to increase acid backing up into the esophagus.”

Lose the fat. If you’re fat on the outside, you can be sure you’re fat on the inside, too, says Walta.

“The fat competes for space with your stomach.” Fat pressing against the stomach can cause the contents to reflux.

Don’t blame the baby. For the same reason that fat can impede normal digestion-competition for space-pregnancy can cause heartburn. That’s all the more reason expectant mothers should watch what they eat and give up that nonsense about eating for two. Remember, pregnant or not, you only have one stomach. Be sure to discuss with your doctor any questions you may have about proper diet and weight gain during pregnancy.

Get in shape. “Couch potatoes have heartburn,” states Taylor. “You almost never have heartburn when you exercise.” Even mild exercise done on a regular basis, such as a daily walk around the neighborhood, may help ease digestive woes. However, avoid working out strenuously immediately after a meal, wait a couple of hours.

Watch your diet. “A high-carbohydrate, low-fat, high-bulk diet is the best thing,” says Taylor. Fried foods and fatty foods should be avoided, he says, because they take longer to digest. Highly spiced foods sometimes contribute to heartburn as well.

Don’t smoke. Nicotine from cigarette smoke irritates the valve between the stomach and the esophagus, as well as the stomach lining, so smokers tend to get more heartburn.

Be careful of coffee. It may not be the caffeine that’s the problem. The oils contained in both regular and decaffeinated coffee may playa role in heartburn. Try cutting your coffee intake to see if your heartburn troubles subside.

Be wary of peppermint. For some people, peppermint seems to cause heartburn. Try skipping the after-dinner mints and see if it helps.

Hold the pepper. For people with heartburn problems, using pepper is not such a hot idea, says Kimra Warren, R.D., a registered dietitian at St. Vincent Hospital and Medical Center in Portland Oregon. Sprinkling or grinding pepper, whether red or black, onto your food may be contributing to your heartburn troubles, so try going easy on it.

Take it easy. “A big contributor to heartburn is stress,” says Taylor. Stress can create increased ad secretion and can cause the esophageal sphincter to malfunction.

Don’t crack open a cold one. Alcohol can relax the sphincter, notes Taylor. It can irritate the stomach, too, which can lead to reflux.

Slow down on soda. Carbonated beverages and soda pop can contribute to heartburn woes. “Carbonation causes stomach distention due to gas, and that causes acid rolling back up into the esophagus,” Patel explains.

Check your painkiller. If you’re about to pop a couple of aspirin in your mouth, think again. Aspirin, ibuprofen, and products that contain them can burn the esophagus as well as the stomach, warns Walta. Opt for acetaminophen instead.

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Heart Palpitations

In the language of romance, a racing, thumping heart is a sure sign that you’re in love. In the language of medicine, those same symptoms indicate that your heart’s rhythm is out of whack. One common-and altogether normal-alteration is a speeding up of the heart rate during exercise or during an intense emotional experience. All of the body’s cells and tissues demand more oxygen-rich blood at such times, and the heart accommodates by accelerating the delivery process. In spite of a rapid heartbeat, the normal rhythm stays steady. Once you have stopped exercising, the heartbeat will slow to what is called the “resting heart­ beat”-72 regular beats a minute is the average, although an individual’s resting rate may be as low as 40 (during sleep or in athletes) or as high as 100.

Another common disturbance in heart rhythm is called a premature beat-or extrasystole. In this situation, a beat, which originates in the upper or lower chamber of the heart, happens a little earlier than anticipated. It may be followed by an unnervingly long pause, in which you sense a little flutter in the neck and chest and a sudden empty feeling in the stomach. Then there is the noticeable thump of another heartbeat, whereupon the symptoms disappear as quickly as they started. (Such extra beats may also occur without noticeable symptoms.)

Everyone has experienced at least one episode of premature heartbeat. Sometimes, the sensation is so vague and fleeting that the event may pass unnoticed. Such episodes may be more noticeable when you are at rest and your attention is not otherwise occupied. If you are trying to fall asleep, the sensation may prevent you from doing so. Premature beats occur in normal hearts as well as in those that have been damaged by some form of heart disease. While they are bothersome, they are not usually serious. (If you experience irregular heartbeats on a regular basis or if they are associated with pain, breathlessness, dizziness, and/or nausea, see “Heartbreakers.”) Still, there are some steps you can take that may help keep your heartbeat steadier.

Consider your caffeine intake. Caffeine is a nervous-system stimulant that is present in coffee, tea, and cola-type soft drinks as well as in chocolate. In small amounts, caffeine may “rev” you up and even keep you from falling asleep at your desk. In large doses or in sensitive individuals, however, it may cause palpitations and other unpleasant side effects. “Since caffeine is habit forming, it may be difficult to wean yourself away from the different caffeine-containing products you use in the course of a day, but the positive result will be worth it,” says Jonathan S. Steinberg, M.D., director of the Arrhythmia Service at St. Luke’s-Roosevelt Hospital Center in New York.

How much caffeine is too much? “Keep your caffeine intake below 500 milligrams a day,” advises Steinberg. A five-ounce cup of drip coffee contains about 150 milligrams of caffeine. A five. ounce cup of tea brewed for three to five minutes contains 20 to 50 milligrams of caffeine. Cola drinks generally contain about 35 to 45 milligrams per 12-ounce can. As you tally up your caffeine intake, keep in mind that cough and cold products, menstrual-discomfort products, and pain medications may contain appreciable amounts of the stimulant; check the labels.

Nix the nicotine. In addition to the havoc nicotine wreaks on other parts of the body, it also speeds up the heart rate and can cause it to become irregular. So, if you have not stopped smoking yet, don’t wait a minute more!

Ease up. One of the most common causes of palpitations is anxiety. “Worry and tension may actually cause the heart rate to increase,” notes Lynda E. Rosenfeld, M.D., associate professor of medicine and pediatrics at Yale University School of Medicine in New Haven, Connecticut. “What’s more, anxious individuals may have a heightened awareness of body functions, such as heartbeat, even if those functions are normal.”

Turn in earlier. If you have been trying to get by on too little sleep, your palpitations may be your heart’s way of telling you to slow down. “During a long night’s sleep, your body’s demand for oxygen-­rich blood is reduced so that your heart can relax just a little in its never-ending pumping job. After a few nights of uninterrupted sleep, you may find that your palpitation problem has resolved,” says Steinberg.

Check your iron. Palpitations may reflect a case of severe Iron­ deficiency anemia. A major function of your blood is to transport oxygen-via red blood cells -to every part of your body. When you are deficient in red blood cells or in iron, which is the mineral in red blood cells that carries the oxygen, the tissues in your body become undernourished.

Consequently, your heart beats faster, trying to send more of the iron-poor blood to the organs in an effort to make up for in quantity what is lacking in quality. “If you are severely anemic, you may also be feeling extremely fatigued in general and be noticing that your skin-especially on the palms of your hands-is pale,” notes Arnold j. Greenspon, M.D., clinical professor of medicine and director of the Cardiac Electrophysiology Laboratory at Thomas Jefferson University Hospital in Philadelphia. “While eating iron-rich foods, such as green, leafy vegetables, can help, the best way to get a diagnosis and a treatment is to see your doctor.” Once your anemia has been diagnosed and corrected, your heart palpitations should abate, as well.

Dump the diet pills. If you are trying to lose weight with over-the-counter diet pills, you may be losing a steady heart rate in addition to pounds. The active ingredient in these products-phenyl­propanolamine, or PPA-should not be used by people with heart-rhythm problems. “Drugstore aids for weight loss tend to lose their effectiveness in a very short time,” notes Greenspon. “Thus, you take more and more of them-with a further increase in heart rate.” (Diet pills are not the only drugs that can cause heart palpitations, however; see “Runaway Heartbeats.”)

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Ah, the morning after. There’s nothing in the world quite like it, except, perhaps, being flattened by a steamroller and living through it.

Although they are the most revered of self ­inflicted ailments, hangovers are not well understood. Many physicians believe that they arise from two phenomena-a slight swelling of brain and dehydration.

The mechanism causing the swelling of the brain is not clear, but it may be a selective effect of alcohol, according to Joseph A. Lieberman III, M.D., M.P.H., chairman of the Department of family and Community medicine at the Medical Center of Delaware in Wilmington. The dehydration occurs because alcohol acts as a diuretic, causing you to urinate more frequently.

Whatever the exact reasons that you’re feeling so bad, the bottom line is that you do. The tips that follow are the doctor’s prescription for some relief.

Replace your fluids. Since much of the discomfort Of a hangover comes from the dehydration your body experiences, drinking lots of liquids may make you feel better, according to Lieberman. “Rehydrate yourself with something that is not offensive to your stomach,” he says. “The alcohol ends to make the mucous membranes of the stomach and small intestines sensitive and irritated. Acidic fluids, like orange juice, may make it worse.” Some tried-and-trues are water and mildly carbonated sodas. Skip the Bloody Mary mix.

Treat it early. Hangovers are one ailment where the treatment may be more effective if it precedes the symptoms, according to E. M. Hecht, M.D., a New York-based general practitioner. Also, “with any pain syndrome, it’s best to treat it in its earliest stages,” he says. He recommends drinking plenty of fluids before going to bed, and, if you suspect that you’ll be waking with a headache, taking a dose of acetaminophen.

Stick with clear liquids. Until you feel that you’ve really recovered, it’s probably best to avoid food, especially foods that are spicy or highly seasoned, says Lieberman. He recommends sticking with liquids until you feel you are able to tolerate something solid.

Eat a banana. “Some people believe you need to replace potassium because of what you may lose with the frequent urination that you experience when you drink alcohol,” Hecht says. If your stomach can handle it, eating a few bananas may help you feel better more quickly, he explains.

Take two acetaminophen. Non-aspirin pain relievers, especially acetaminophen, are probably the best cures for a hangover-induced headache, says Lieberman. Although aspirin will probably also work for pain, it can aggravate an already irritated stomach, he says.

Skip the hair of the dog. Some people swear that a morning drink of whatever you drink last night will cure a hangover. However, doctors don’t tend to agree with this “hair-of-the-dog-that-bit-you” philosophy. “It will dehydrate you further. Don’t do it,” says Gary H. Goldman, M.D., an assistant attending physician at The New York Hospital-Cornell Medical Center in New York.

“Drinking the next day will only re-create the problem,” says James E. Bridges, M.D., a family physician in Fremont, Nebraska.

Common sense says that the logic of this remedy seems to be lacking. After all, if you hit your thumb with a hammer, would you hit it again to stop it from hurting?

Treat it like an illness. Cancel your appointments for the day. Call in sick to work, if you can. Draw the shades. Take the telephone off the hook. Stay in bed for an extra hour-or more. Basically, if you do whatever you can to pay your body back for the damage you did to it last night, then it may pay you back by getting you back on your feet a little faster.

Take it easy on your tummy. “Eat sick foods, such as toast, soup, or tea, if you can hold anything down,” suggests Goldman. Try nibbling rather than sitting down to a full meal. Let your stomach be your guide as you go through the recuperation process.

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